type os snake venum

22 أكتوبر
Types of Snake Venom, Symptoms and Treatment
September 21, 2010 by  
Filed under brown sheep
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WARNING

ALL THE INFORMATION ON SNAKE-BITE TREATMENT IS THERE TO HELP YOU
UNDERSTAND HOW TO MANAGE THESE EMERGENCIES. I HOLD NO
RESPONSIBILITY WHATSOEVER FOR ANY LOSSES OR HARM DONE.

Cytotoxic venom (cell destroying)

Symptoms:

This venom destroys blood vessels, cells and tissue.
The symptoms develop slowly, 10 – 15 minutes after the bite.
The bite is very localized and painful, with severe swelling, bleeding, redness and
blistering often occurring.
Nausea and vomiting may also occur.

Once the venom enters the body, the body sends plasma (white blood cells) to the
site of the bite to try and dilute the venom. With the venom being so potent, excess
amounts of plasma cause the body tissues to swell up to the degree where the veins
are compressed very tightly up against the skin, resulting in loss of blood circulation.
The area that swells often turns to a blackish-blue color as a result of there being
limited blood circulation. If not treated promptly, within 4 hours, amputations may
necessary.

Treatment:

Keep casualty calm and advise not to move. Either sitting or lying down.
Cover the site of the bite with a clean dressing and apply a pressure bandage from
the start of the limb, then wrapping towards the bite area.
It is very important to take the pressure bandage off every 10 – 15 minutes then re-
applying it once again as severe swelling may cause circulation to be cut off by the
bandage.
Splint and elevate the limb if possible.
If a suction syringe is available, then use on the site of the bite within three minutes,
any time after that would be prove useless. Don’t use your mouth to suck the venom
out as you may have a cut or mouth ulcer where the venom can enter through.
Don’t cut the sight of the bite as this may lead to infection of the wound.
Keep the airways open and monitor respiration and heart rate.
Try to identify the snake if possible but don’t waste time doing this. Don’t try catching
the snake if it is still alive as this may result in another snake-bite.
Transport casualty to hospital promptly.

Haemotoxic venom (poisoning of blood)

Symptoms:

Often no pain or symptoms occur for 1 -3 hours and as long as 8 hours.
Casualty feels lethargic with headaches.
Nausea and vomiting may occur.
Constant bleeding from the bite wound.
Bruising as well as blood spots may occur under the skin.
Blood oozing from other bodily openings.

This venom affects the blood clotting mechanism, resulting in headaches, and loss of
blood through the bodily openings and if left untreated internal bleeding of the organs
will occur.

Treatment:

Keep casualty calm and advise not to move. Either sitting or lying down.
Cover the site of the bite with a clean dressing and apply a pressure bandage from
the start of the limb, then wrapping towards the bite area.
Splint and elevate the limb if possible.
If a suction syringe is available, then use on the site of the bite within three minutes,
any time after that would be prove useless. Don’t use your mouth to suck the venom
out as you may have a cut or mouth ulcer where the venom can enter through.
Don’t cut the sight of the bite as this may lead to infection of the wound.
Keep the airways open and monitor respiration and heart rate.
Try to identify the snake if possible but don’t waste time doing this. Don’t try catching
the snake if it is still alive as this may result in another snake-bite.
Transport casualty to hospital promptly.

Myotoxic venom (muscular necrosis)

Symptoms:

Casualty feels a sensation of the tongue thickening.
Dryness of the throat with a sense of thirst.
Stiffness of the jaw, neck, trunk and limbs muscles.
Severe pain when moving muscles. 
Muscular spasms and convulsions.
Eyelids may start drooping.
Difficulty breathing.
Urine turns to a blackish-brown color after a few hours.

Myotoxic venom contains peptides that destroy the protein in the muscle fibers, that
have a high oxidative capacity, resulting in myocrosis (muscle destruction).

The broken down protein from the muscle fibers then enters the blood stream through
to the kidneys. The kidneys overwork trying to filter out all the excess body tissue
often resulting in kidney failure and the urine turning very dark in color.

Treatment:

Keep casualty calm and advise not to move. Either sitting or lying down.
Cover the site of the bite with a clean dressing and apply a pressure bandage from
the start of the limb then wrapping towards the bite area.
Splint and elevate the limb if possible.
If a suction syringe is available, then use on the site of the bite within three minutes,
any time after that would be prove useless. Don’t use your mouth to suck the venom
out as you may have a cut or mouth ulcer where the venom can enter through.
Don’t cut the sight of the bite as this may lead to infection of the wound.
Keep the airways open and monitor respiration and heart rate.
Try to identify the snake if possible but don’t waste time doing this. Don’t try catching
the snake if it is still alive as this may result in another snake-bite.
Transport casualty to hospital promptly.
With certain species of snakes such as sea snakes the venom is extremely
powerful, so a tourniquet may be used but should be released and put back on every
10 – 15 minutes to allow for blood circulation. 

Neurotoxic venom (Nerve destroying)

Symptoms:

The casualty has speech and swallowing difficulties often accompanied by drooling.
Difficulty breathing.
Respiratory arrest.
Dizziness.
Tunnel vision or blurred vision.
Visible increase in sweating.
Convulsions.
Unconsciousness.

This venom attacks the central nervous system by causing a high loss of the
synaptic vesicles, resulting in the blockage of nerve impulses from the brain too the
muscles.

Treatment:

Keep casualty calm and advise not to move. Either sitting or lying down.
Cover the site of the bite with a clean dressing and apply a pressure bandage from
the start of the limb then wrapping towards the bite area.
Splint and elevate the limb if possible.
If a suction syringe is available, then use on the site of the bite within three minutes,
any time after that would be prove useless. Don’t use your mouth to suck the venom
out as you may have a cut or mouth ulcer where the venom can enter through.
Don’t cut the sight of the bite as this may lead to infection of the wound.
Keep the airways open and monitor respiration and heart rate.
Mouth to mouth respiration may be required to keep the casualty alive.
Try to identify the snake if possible but don’t waste time doing this. Don’t try catching
the snake if it is still alive as this may result in another snake-bite.
Transport casualty to hospital promptly.
Neurotoxic venom is extremely powerful, so a tourniquet may be used if the casualty
is far from any hospital. The tourniquet should be released and put back on every 10
– 15 minutes to allow for blood circulation. 

Anti-venom

Anti-venom is made up of the antibodies from horses, sheep, goats, rabbits or dogs
blood. Horses are more commonly used as more blood can be tapped.

These animals are injected with small, non-lethal doses of venom over a period of
time, with the dosage slowly increased. Their immune systems respond by creating
antibodies to attack the venom. Once the animal is immune to the venom, the
antibodies are then extracted to make anti-venom.

Horse serum often causes serum sickness which is when the immune system reacts
against the foreign proteins in the serum, the reaction can cause kidney failure and
even death.

Sheep serum is made by a purified fraction of the plasma, specifically refined
antibody fragments and is a lot safer to use. Sheep serum is used for the treatment
of the American rattlesnake bites.

Monovalent anti-venom – this is made by injecting the venom of a specific species
of snake into an animal to develop the anti-venom. This is effective against one
specific snake species.

Polyvalent anti-venom – this is made by injecting the venom from a variety of  
different snake species into an animal to develop the anti-venom. This is effective
against a broad range of snake species.

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